PERSPECTIVE TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
Atmospheric Perspective. Objects appearing farther away as a result of atmospheric haze, resulting in diminishing value contrasts, details, and color intensity, apart
from physical attributes of diminishing size and convergence of lines towards vanishing points.
Bird’s Eye View. A 3-point perspective in which the viewer is high above
the object looking downward and the form appears smaller at it’s base than it’s top.
Center of Vision (CV). A point in the distance, at the horizon, directly in
front of the viewer.
Cone of Vision (COV). The area we see before distortion begins to affect
our vision, coming out from the viewer at 60˚.
Converging Light Shadow. The result of an artificial light source producing shadows in any direction using converging
Converging lines. Parallel lines that come together towards a single vanishing point.
Diminishing Forms or Diminutation. Refers to the apparent size of objects and how they become smaller when the distance between the object moves further
away from the viewer/artist.
Eye Level Line. The vantage point of the spectator, also referred to as the horizon line.
Foreshortening. The apparent reduction in the length or width of a subject due to the angle from which it is viewed.
Field of Vision (FOV). The area wider than the Cone of Vision, coming
out from the viewer at 90˚, in which
Ground line (G). The bottom of the picture plane.
Ground Angle Line (GA). A shadow edge appearing across the ground
as a result of a vertical edge of an object.
Ground Angle Vanishing Point (GAVP). A point on the horizon line used
for calculating either Positive or Negative
Horizon Line (HL). Also known as the “Eye Level Line”. This line is drawn across the page and represents the eye level
of the viewer. The height of the horizon line changes depending on the viewer’s height.
This changes the view of the subject.
Linear Perspective. A system for drawing 3-D space on a 2-D surface by following the guidelines that all parallel and receding lines converge to vanishing points,
and that objects appear smaller as they recede in space. This was developed during the Renaissance (1400–1500’s).
Line of Sight. An imaginary line traveling from the eye of the spectator
Major Axis, of an ellipse. The longest distance across the ellipse.
Minor Axis, of an ellipse. The short distance across the ellipse.
Negative Light Shadows. Sun light source is behind us, producing shadows moving away in the scene, appearing behind forms, away from the viewer, using converging light rays with a GAVP and LAVP, where the LAVP is below the HL.
One-Point Perspective (1-Pt). A type of linear perspective where the sides
of the object that are facing the viewer are parallel to the picture plane and the parallel
lines that recede from the viewer converge
to a single vanishing point.
Orthogonal Lines. Imaginary or lightly drawn guidelines in a perspective drawing. They are usually the parallel lines
that converge on to the horizon line.
Overlapping. A technique used to create depth on a 2-D surface by placing one form over another Overlay. A transparent sheet of paper that allows the viewer of a
design to reference a drawing below it.
Parallel Light Shadow. An idealized scenario in which all the vertical lines appear on the ground parallel to one another and correspondingly the Light Angles are
also parallel. Best used when Ground Angles are parallel to or close to parallel with the horizon line.
Parallel Lines. Two lines that are the same distance from one another.
Picture Plane (PP). An imaginary transparent plane that is between the viewer and the subject.
Positive Light Shadows. Sun light source in front of us, producing shadows coming forward in the scene, in front of forms, towards the viewer, using converging light rays with a GAVP and LAVP, where the LAVP is above the HL.
Receding. Moving away from the viewer. (Opposite) — Advancing.
Station Point (SP or S). One of the two variables that control view in a drawing. This refers to a stationery point
on the ground from which the viewer/artist observes the scene.
Sighting. An angle measuring technique in which the artist holds out a pencil out at arm’s length toward an object being examined to make comparisons.
Three-Point Perspective. A type of linear perspective where the sides of the object that are facing the viewer are at an angle to the to the picture plane and the parallel lines that recede from the viewer converge to three vanishing points.
Touch Point (T). The point at which a sphere touches the ground.
Two-Point Perspective (2-Pt). A type of linear perspective where the sides
of the object that are facing the viewer are at an angle to the picture plane and the parallel lines that recede from the viewer converge to two vanishing points.
Vanishing Point (VP). Imaginary points on the horizon line in 1 pt. and
2 pt. perspective. Receding lines converge
to these points.
Worm’s Eye View. 3-point perspective in which the viewer is at a very low angle creating an upward drama, like that of a small child looking up at an adult, or standing beneath a very tall building.
TUTORIALS & HOW-TO GUIDES
Stage 1: Empathize—Research Your Users' Needs
The first stage of the design thinking process allows you to gain an empathetic understanding of the problem you’re trying to solve, typically through user research. Empathy is crucial to a human-centered design process like design thinking because it allows you to set aside your own assumptions about the world and gain real insight into users and their needs.
Stage 2: Define—State Your Users' Needs and Problems
In the Define stage, you accumulate the information you created and gathered during the Empathize stage. You analyze your observations and synthesize them to define the core problems you and your team have identified so far. You should always seek to define the problem statement in a human-centered manner as you do this.
Stage 3: Ideate—Challenge Assumptions and Create Ideas
Designers are ready to generate ideas as they reach the third stage of design thinking. The solid background of knowledge from the first two phases means you can start to “think outside the box”, look for alternative ways to view the problem and identify innovative solutions to the problem statement you’ve created.
Stage 4: Prototype—Start to Create Solutions
This is an experimental phase, and the aim is to identify the best possible solution for each of the problems identified during the first three stages. Design teams will produce a number of inexpensive, scaled-down versions of the product (or specific features found within the product) to investigate the problem solutions generated in the previous stage.
Stage 5: Test—Try Your Solutions Out
Designers or evaluators rigorously test the complete product using the best solutions identified in the Prototype phase. This is the final phase of the model but, in an iterative process such as design thinking, the results generated are often used to redefine one or more further problems. Designers can then choose to return to previous stages in the process to make further iterations, alterations and refinements to rule out alternative solutions.
Stage 6: Repeat
MIND / BODY / SPIRIT SUPPORT
* Estimate only. See instructor and calendar for specific due dates. Summer Session schedule is more compressed with one week equal to approximately two and half semester weeks.
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